The whole world is characterized by the phenomenon of climate variability over the past 30 years. The effects of climate change (reduced agricultural production, worsen nutrition security, increased incidence of floods and drought, spread of disease and increased risk of conflict due to scarcity of land and water) are already evident. Data from weather stations in northern Benin between 1960 and 2008 show that the average rainfall has been weakened by 3.2 mm / year and temperature had a linear elevation trend with an increase of 0.03 ° C / year.
These events did not remain without consequences for rained agriculture in the countries of West Africa, such as Benin Republic, dependent on seasons. Although agriculture in these countries contributes nearly 30% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employs over 50% of the workforce, it is heavily dependent on climate. In Benin, an activity which occupies more than 85% of the workforce and contributes over 36% to the GDP. However, according to FAO in 2005, agriculture remains an extensive agriculture, yields and random productions as dependent on the weather. The negative impacts of climate change are well established.
With climate disruptions and those of the future, the issue of access to water arises acute over the years. Agro-climatic parameters have binding specifies for agriculture and forestry, especially in the Southwest and the far north of Benin who sometimes experience severe droughts. It now holds that Benin Republic climates are characterized by rainfall variability, reducing the length of the growing season and higher minimum temperatures. The agricultural sector, purveyor of food and financial resources, is upset and therefore deserves special attention if the Benin aims to ensure food self-sufficient.